Telescopes are optical instruments that are used to magnify far of objects using various forms of lenses and mirrors. The first known telescopes were refracting telescopes which can be dated back to the 17th century in the Netherlands.
The advancement in technology has made scientists make many discoveries in the world of science-related explicitly to astronomy that has helped for the betterment of human life. There are still many celestial bodies in the universe that are yet to be discovered, and these discoveries can be made by scientists using various forms of telescopes. Here are the basic types of telescopes that are used by modern-day scientists from around the world,
1) Optical Telescope –
The Optical Telescope is the most commonly used telescope by astronomers and hobbyists who love to look at the night sky. Optical Telescopes gathers light from the visible wavelength of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. They are widely divided into three types namely refraction, reflection, and catadioptric optical designs.
2) Solar Telescope –
The Solar Telescope was formerly known as Photoheliograph. They are used to observe the sun and its frequencies outside the visible spectrum. Solar telescopes have a long focal length which help in giving a higher magnification. McMath-Pierce is the world’s largest solar and unobstructed telescope in the world, and it is located in Arizona, USA.
3) Radio Telescope –
Radio telescopes are used to study radio frequencies from various stars, galaxies and other celestial bodies. They can even be used during the day. They have a parabolic antenna attached to them that helps narrow down the radio frequencies. The large part of the radio frequencies consists of the electromagnetic spectrum. In order to listen to various radio frequencies, radio telescopes are made of different size and shapes. Some of the frequencies currently used by radio telescopes are Channel 37, Hydrogen line and The Waterhole.
4) Ultraviolet Telescopes –
The Earth’s atmosphere blocks harmful ultraviolet rays and due to this ultraviolet light can only be observed from above the earth. Ultraviolet radiation plays a very important role when it comes to astronomical observation as it reveals the chemical composition, temperature and the densities of various celestial bodies. The most widely known ultraviolet telescope is the Hubble Space Telescope that is still operational in spite of being launched in the 1990s.
5) Infrared Telescope –
Infrared Telescopes are used to detect far off astronomical objects in the dusty regions of space. Infrared astronomy is one the most important branch of modern astrophysics as it plays a crucial role in studying the early stage of the universe. Infrared Telescopes use special cameras that are always kept at a cryogenic temperature below -150 degrees. The most famous infrared telescope in the world is the NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope which was launched in the year 2003 and is still operational till today.